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League of Legends Guide

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Game Mechanics - The Missing Manual

written by RobertMeta

Table of Contents

  • * This guide is NOT

    This guide is NOT going to dive too deeply into specific of individual champions, it is intended for general mechanics, you can find more specific quarks and mechanics on champions in The Missing Manual - Champions, Items and Oddities

  • * Help this Guide

    Do you want to help with this guide? There are a lot of ways:

    #1. The quick / easy way is to add a link to this guide to your signature, help spread the goodness to the leaguecraft / league of legends forums!

    #2. Leave a comment on this guide, love, hate, support, a promise of making me cookies, whatever.

    #3. Another way is to join the Mechanics Testers Brigade... we need people checking math, designing tests, and of course, getting in the game and testing the mechanics.

    #4. The final way is to search the forum for the topic "TEST REQUIRED:", those are tests posted by people in the Mechanics Testers Brigade that are looking for answers (if they are locked, they are probably already closed.

  • * How to comment

    Please leave comments on the Forum Post rather than this guide, as the comment section on guides is awful for actual conversations.

  • * How to use this Guide

    This guide is long, and getting longer by the day. It is primarily intended to be used as a reference, rather than a coherent readable guide.

    Text in this color is a quick summary / the one sentence explanation, the 101 version.

    Text in this color means I REVERSED what was said (major correction)

    Text in this color means it is unreferenced / unverified, but I have a high degree of confidence in it, also used for missing references.

    Text in this color is something I think is important to know, or might go against what you expect

  • * Changelog

    * 2010-09-05 -- Updated slow to be correct (thanks Heat n Serve)
    * 2010-09-06 -- Updated true damage to be correct (researched with screenshots, research pending on poppy)
    * 2010-09-06 -- Updated items to point out that they do not all stack additively (specifically those with dodge, or percentage penetration).
    * 2010-09-07 -- Various minor updates, and notes about Amumu's Ult. Added damage shields section. Added entangle.
    * 2010-09-08 -- Updated towers section with new tower aggro mechanics.
    * 2010-09-10 -- Added a section about the PvP.net client.
    * 2010-09-11 -- Added a bit of information about last whisper to items, also added information on skillshots to brush section.
    * 2010-09-13 -- Added an on-hit section.
    * 2010-09-14 -- Started to add shiny colors to the guide. Added more information about critical damage and stacking, as well as new tower information. Also added a ton more pending research. Added attack damage reduction, and attack speed reduction, updated brush section.
    * 2010-09-15 -- Fixed an error in towers, fixed an error in damage reflection. Also, more colors!
    * 2010-09-16 -- Lots of minor corrects and fixes thanks to yoshuawuyts, as well as some good new questions. Plus, some questions from the forum added as well. Also added a creeps section.
    * 2010-09-17 -- Updated cooldown reduction a bit. Multiple questions answered. Move some questions to The Missing Manual - Champions, Items and Oddities, Removed Frost section (moved to the champion guide), and Removed flash (it was incorrect and needs to be reworked), Cleaned up the flow a good bit of the guide.
    * 2010-09-18 -- Had to add screenshot and more data to the armor penetration section, because the ignorance plague marches on.

  • * Pending Research

    If you have any questions, please post them to the comments section, any mechanics questions at all. These are things that I am currently researching.

    * Find out exact mechanics behind different damage absorbing shields. Pre or post reduction? Order of shield removal when multiple on.
    * Find out exact mechanics of the flat damage reductions (Amumu / Masteries). Pre or post reduction?
    * What is the cutoff point for showing health gains with popup numbers?

  • * Thanks

    I wanted to create a special thanks section for all the people who have had a huge impact on this guide. Thanks guys!

    * Kirtanei -- Special thanks for all the time he has spent testing stuff with me, he basically co-authored the tower section.
    * Heat n Serve -- The dependable source of math-craft-fu.
    * Civil Enemy -- Created the big test thread, which inspired me to create the Mechanics Testers Brigade
    * yoshuawuyts -- Lots of edits, and shield research.
    * Fury
    * Lys_Ecarlate
    * Abaddon

  • Abilties (Spells)

    Abilities are the things you can use, bound by default to Q W E R, abilities generally speaking, take into account Magic Resist when doing damage. There are exceptions to this, like Gangplanks Parrrley, which does physical damage, and Olaf's Reckless Swing which does True Damage.

    If you upgrade a ability after you have used it (is either in travel, or is set on the ground like a Teemo mushroom) the ability does not upgrade, it hits with the pre-upgraded damage. Malz's dot may be an exception to this rule (research pending, thinking each time Malz dot "jumps" it is like a fresh cast).

    On the otherhand, spells will take the ability power or attack damage from the time they are being applied or going off, rather than we then started travel (or in Teemo's case, where planted.)

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects, Reference Civil Enemy in comments on The Missing Manual - Champion Facts

  • Ability Power

    Ability Power increases the effectiveness of most champion abilities. Abilities in League of Legends that are affected by ability power have an ability power coefficient. This coefficient determines how much a particular ability will benefit from a champion's total ability power. For example, if a damage spell has an ability power coefficient of .25, every 4 points of ability power will increase the damage of this ability by 1. This bonus is added before magic resistance.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Aura (Stacking)

    An aura is an item or ability that applies to the teammates around you, as well as yourself.

    If you and a teammate both have the same item, you will be affected by the aura twice. As an example, at the start of the game you purchase Mana Manipulator. This item gives a mana regeneration to yourself and allies nearby. If you were to go with a teammate who also purchased Mana Manipulator, both of you would be affected by this aura twice.

    However, if you had a third teammate that did not have the Mana Manipulator they would only be affected by one aura.

    Note that you can be affected by the same aura at most twice. Once if you have it, once if a teammate has it.

    References: League of Legends - Auras, League of Legends - Forum Post on Mechanics

  • Armor

    Armor reduces the damage a champion receives from physical attacks. Armor reduces the damage of incoming physical attacks by a percentage. This percentage is determined by the formula: Damage Reduction = Total Armor / (100 + Total Armor). For example, a champion with 150 points of armor would receive 60% reduced damage from physical attacks.

    To understand how much damage reduction, it is simple, ARMOR/(100+ARMOR).

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Armor Penetration

    Armor penetration mitigates the effects of armor. Armor penetration can NOT go negative, I don't care what you have heard, or read, only reduction can go negative. Create a practice game and test this against another champion. Since ignorance seems to be a plague based on comments, here is data and a screenshot.

    If armor penetration COULD go negative, 46 armor versus 50 armor penetration would be -4 or +4.1% damage. That would make 97 damage into 100 or 101 (LoL often rounds down, hence two numbers).

    In reality 97 damage will deliver 96 or 97 (LoL often rounds down, hence two numbers).

    Unsurprisingly, it did 96 damage.

    External Image


    Flat armor penetration is applied directly to your attacks and physical abilities. These attacks will deal damage as though your target has less armor than he really does, but will never bring an opponent below 0 armor. For example, if a target has 20 armor and you have 5 armor penetration, you would deal damage as though the target had 15 armor. If you had 50 armor penetration against the same target, you would deal damage as though he had 0 armor.

    Percent armor penetration applies its benefits after flat armor penetration. For example if you fight a target with 120 armor while you have 20 flat armor penetration and 40% armor penetration, you would deal damage to your target as though he had 60 armor.

    Armor reduction and armor penetration are applied in this order:
    1. Percent reduction (Bushwhack / Pounce)
    2. Flat reduction (The Black Cleaver, Puncturing Taunt, etc)
    3. Flat penetration (The Brutalizer, Sunder Mastery, Runes of Desolation)
    4. Percent penetration (Last Whisper)
    (note: not sure of the order of 1 and 2 since the patch notes only mention a change to the order in which penetration is applied, not reduction).

    Numbers 1 and 2 will visibly affect a target's armor/resist values in their stat display. While 3 and 4 apply further reduction in much the same way, players will only see a change in damage dealt; there will be no visible change in the target's armor/resist in the stats display. Also note that armor/resist reduction is able to lower an enemy's armor/resist values below zero, but penetration can only penetrate armor/resist up to zero and no further.

    Stacking Armor Percent Penetration will yield diminishing results as it stacks multiplicatively and not additively. Armor reduction is generally an aura from items, so it applies to all the enemies in a range around you and benefits teammates.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, League of Legends - Champion Statistics, Post with screen-shot of negative armor and bonus damage

  • Armor Reduction

    Armor Reduction varies from Armor Penetration, but since the two are inter-related, they are both covered under Armor Penetration.

  • Assists

    Coming Soon

  • Attack Damage

    Attack Damage is the amount of damage your auto-attacks will do, but it is also used in some abilities (not always 100%). Bonus damage is calculated before damage reduction from armor. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Attack Damage Reduction

    Attack damage reduction decreases the amount of damage done by enemies, or to you, it is a flat stat, like Mocking Shout, which will remove that amount of attack damage from anyone effected by it.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, Test Lab Post

  • Attack Speed

    Attack speed is simply how fast you auto-attack

    Attack speed is calculated using a base attack speed and any attack speed modifiers your champion has. As your champion levels, he/she gains a fixed attack speed per level. Percentage modifiers, such as those from items/runes/masteries, only apply to the base attack speed a champion possesses and not to the attack speed gained with each level. Basically, Attack Speed has different applied value per champion. To learn the ins and outs, use the references.

    Attack speed has a hard-cap of 2.5 attacks per second, you can never go over this limit.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, League of Legends - Abilities and Effects, League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Attack Speed Reduction

    Attack speed reduction slows down enemy attacks, it works multiplicatively based on the total attack speed you have.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, Test Lab Post

  • Blind

    Blind will reduce the blinded persons chance to hit. Heimerdingers turrets cannot be blinded.

    When you auto attack an enemy champion, not all of your attacks will always hit. The enemy could dodge your attack, or you could miss (two separate mechanics). Misses are caused by having debuffs on your character that reduce your chance to hit:
    * Corki's Phosphorus Bomb reduces your chance to hit by 35%
    * Teemo's Blinding Dart reduces your chance to hit by 100%
    * Heimerdinger's [spell_text=CH-1 Concussion Grenade] reduces your chance to hit by 100%
    * Exhaust summoner ability reduces your chance to hit by 100%

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, Test Lab Post

  • Bounty

    Coming Soon

  • Brush

    Brush is the tall grassy terrain on a map that provides a champion with a form of stealth. Upon entering the brush, a champion immediately (no fade time) becomes invisible to enemy units outside of that particular patch of brush. Visually, this effect manifests by your champion's avatar taking on a partially transparent quality. Opposing champions in different patches of brush will not be able to see each other even if they are within normal sight range. Brush, however, will never block your view of an allied champion hiding within.

    Brush can be used in several ways to create a tactical advantage on the battlefield. First, and pehaps most apparently, one can utilize the brush to set an ambush for an enemy champion, emerging once they have passed to cut off their escape. Brush can also be used to while fleeing, breaking line of sight, and forcing pursuing champions to guess which direction you have continued. It can also be used to dodge passing minion waves, to hide your champion while he channels recall, or to force a ranged champion to close to melee range to continue their attack. Remember to use the brush to your advantage on the Field of Justice!

    Once you attack from the brush (minions or champions), you are visible to the enemy team. There is a small delay before you fade out after being shown. This will also show your allies around you to the enemy (not the entire bush, just the friendly champs immediately near you). Using a skill-shot will not reveal you if you are in the brush.

    * Note: Vision and Sight Wards are subject to the same limitations surrounding brush as other units. Vision Wards placed outside of brush will not be able to see enemies inside.

    References: League of Legends - Brush

  • Cooldowns

    Abilities can only be used a certain number of times in a given time frame, they have a cooldown, or a period for which the ability is unavailable for cast.

  • Cooldown Reduction

    Cooldown reduction simply reduces the amount of time an ability is not usable. Some abilities have very short cooldowns, under a second even, and can be used very often. Other abilities have much longer cooldowns and can only be used once every few minutes.

    Cooldown reduction reduces the amount of time you must wait after casting an ability before that ability can be utilized again. Ability cooldowns cannot be reduced by more than 40%. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    Cooldown reduction is only taken into account when you use the ability. Meaning improving your cooldown reduction, once an ability is already cooling down, does nothing until the spell is ready, and then used again. This is the same for when you upgrade an ability, and the new version has a lower cooldown, it will not take effect until the spell is able to be used, and used again.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects, League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Creeps

    Creeps are different from Minions, minions are the little guys you see in the lane, and include even super minions. Creeps on the other hand are the things you find in the forest.


    Wolves: The weakest creeps in the Jungle, they come in groups of three, with a pair of Wolves and a Giant Wolf. The Wolves dont give that much experience compared to other creeps and are spawned near the Ancient Golem. The Wolves give 26 gold and 50 experience, and the Giant Wolf gives 25 gold and 90 experience. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 1:40, re-spawns in 90 seconds. Twisted Treeline -> Spawns at ..., re-spawns in 75 seconds.

    Golems: The Golems are the next weakest creeps, they come in pairs and both have the same health and damage. The Golems give more experience than the wolves, and are consequently harder to kill. They spawn near the Lizard Elder. Each Golem gives 30 gold and 140 experience. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 1:40, re-spawns in 90 seconds. Twisted Treeline -> Spawns at ..., re-spawns in 75 seconds.

    Ancient Golem: The Ancient Golem is one of the strongest creeps in the Jungle, the Ancient Golem itself has high health and damage, and also has two Young Lizards with it. The Young Lizards give you 10 gold and 30 experience. The Ancient Golem gives you 60 gold, 220 experience, and a special buff that decreases cooldowns and increases mana regeneration. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 1:55, re-spawns in 5 minutes.

    Wraiths: The Wraiths have weaker health and damage than the Golems, but there are also four of them, three Lesser Wraiths and a Wraith, and the Wraith has a passive lifesteal. The Wraiths are a little more challenging to kill than either the Golems or Wolves, so they give more experience then the other two. The Lesser Wraiths give 12 gold and 20 experience, and the Wraith gives 35 gold and 120 experience. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 1:40, respawns in 90 seconds.

    Lizard Elder: The Lizard Elder is also one of the stronger creeps, The Lizard Elder has high damage and health. The Lizard Elder is slightly easier to kill than the Ancient Golem. The Young Lizards give you 10 gold and 30 experience. The Lizard Elder gives 60 gold, 220 experience, and a special buff that slows enemies on attack and makes your attacks deal extra damage over time. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 1:55, re-spawns in 5 minutes. Twisted Treeline Edition -> Spawns at 2:10, re-spawns in 4 minutes.

    Rabid Wolf; A Rabid Wolf is a neutral Minion on Twisted Treeline. When killed the Rabid Wolf gives you Crest of Nature's Fury, a buff that reduces Ability Cooldowns by 10% and increases attack speed by 20%. Twisted Treeline Edition -> Spawns at ..., re-spawns in ... minutes.

    The Dragon: The Dragon is the second hardest creep to kill in the game, but also has one of the best rewards. The Dragon spawns in one location on the map near the river, with no other creeps with it. The Dragon gives the killer 25 gold and everyone one on the team 130 gold and a good bit of experience (the equivalent of your team killing two champions of the enemy team in a 5v5). Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 2:30, re-spawns in 6 minutes.

    Baron Nashor: The Baron is the hardest creep on the map. The Baron spawns 15 minutes into the game. The Baron spawns at one location of the map and his creep sign is red. The baron grants a team-wide buff that raises all offensive capabilities. Summoners Rift -> Spawns at 15 minutes, re-spawns in 8 minutes.

    Ebonmaw: The Terror of Zaun is a neutral in Twisted Treeline . Like the Baron Nashor, he is an epic monster. Once defeated, Ebonmaw will give you and your team a special Buff called Crest of Crushing Wrath that gives the player an additional 1% per Champion-level bonus damage on attacks and spells.

    References: League of Legends Wiki, Leagle of Legends - Forum Post with Riot Employee Reply

  • Crit Chance

    Crit (Critical) Chance affects the chance of a champion's basic attack dealing a critical strike. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic. Crit chance caps at 100%, then ever hit will be a crit.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Crit Damage

    Crit (Critical) Damage affects the amount of bonus damage that a champion's critical strike deals. All champions begin with 100% bonus damage on a critical strike. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    This stat for runes is currently arguably sub-par due to average armor and it's value versus Armor Penetration. Infinity Edge is still among the best DPS items.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics, Crit Damage vs. Armor Penetration (by me, not validated for accuracy)

  • Critical Strike

    A critical strike is a hit that does bonus damage, by default, it does double damage, but this can be increased by items, masteries and runes to do more than double.

    Generally, abilities can not critically strike unless they explicitly state they do (like Gangplanks Parrrley).

    References: TBD

  • Crowd Control

    Crowd Control is a generic designation for anything that controls an enemy champion. This includes a lot of different abilities and effects, including:

    * Root
    * Stun
    * Slow
    * (and more).

  • Crowd Control Reduction

    Crowd Control Reduction reduces the effectiveness of crowd control abilities. Certain items, summoner spells and abilities allow you to minimize or remove crowd control effects. Examples include Burning Agony, Quicksilver Sash and the summoner spell Cleanse.

    References: Confirmed with exhaust, Mundo's W, and Cleanse Buff that it does not instantly come off, so it isn't additive, presumption is it is multiplicative.

  • Damage Reduction

    Damage reduction simply reduces the amount of damage taken, it can be done by abilities, or items (armor and magic resist are a separate topic), like Alistar's Unbreakable Will. Also, certain passives like Poppy's Valiant Fighter. True Damage ignores damage reduction abilities. Certain items also reduce damage by a percentage like Leviathan.

    Damage reduction as a percentage multiplicative, flat damage reduction is still under investigation, but the assumption is that it is after all reductions.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, Personally tested Alistar's Damage Reduction not affecting the damage done by Cho'gath Feast.

  • Damage Reflection

    Damage reflection items and abilites will reflect damage back onto the attacker when a person is attacked, some examples include Rammus' Defensive Ball Curl and Thornmail reflect damage back onto the person attacking you. Thornmail only works on autoattacks and returns a percentage of the damage received. Rammus' Defensive Ball Curl returns a set amount per hit, but also works on abilities.

    References: TBD

  • Damage Shield

    Damage shields create an immunity to damage, either an amount of damage like Shens Feint and Stand United, or full immunity to damage like Tryndamere's Undying Rage(when at one health) and Kayle's Intervention.

    Certain abilities like Black Shield, only block either magical or physical.

    Damage shields will block/absorb true damage.

    References: TBD

  • Dance

    Coming Soon

  • Dodge

    Dodge gives your champion a chance to completely avoid an enemy physical attack. Attacks avoided in this way will deal 0 damage and will not apply 'on-hit' effects. However, abilities which significantly modify the champion's attack such as Twisted Fate's Pick A Card, and others will always strike, even when dodged.

    Turret attacks can not be dodged.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics, Test Lab Post

  • Energy

    Energy is a resource used to fuel abilities of certain Champions in place of mana. It is represented by a yellow bar instead of blue. The base maximum for energy is set to 200 with 10 energy regenerated every second. Unlike mana, the maximum energy and energy regeneration rate of a champion cannot be increased with items or masteries but can be enhanced with certain runes. The Ancient Golem buff will increase the Energy regeneration by the same percentage as Mana. Currently only the three Ninja Champions employ this energy mechanic (Akali, Kennen and Shen).

    References: League of Legends Wiki

  • Entangle

    Entangle acts as a Root, as well as a auto-attack suppressor. Amumu's Curse of the Sad Mummy is an example of it.

    References: Patch 1.0.0.100

  • Fear

    Fear effects cause their target to lose control and move randomly for the duration of the effect.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Fog of War

    Fog of war refers to the obscuring effect that takes place on areas of the map that are not within the vision range of your allies. This means that, while you can see the topography of any area on the map, you can only see enemy units located near allied units or your champion. Take note of the areas surrounding your allies. Notice that these areas are brighter. These brighter areas are within the sight range of your champion or one of your allied units. Also notice that the rest of the map is somewhat shrouded. These shaded regions are covered by the fog of war. Enemies in these shaded regions cannot be seen until they enter the sight range of one of your allies. When enemies enter the sight range of an allied unit, they will be revealed, unless they are able to turn invisible or they are hiding within brush.

    * Note: There are ways of revealing areas on he map that would normally be shrouded in fog of war. The first is the summoner spell Clairvoyance, which can be placed anywhere on the map to reveal that area for five seconds. Stealthed users are not affected by this spell. The second is to buy consumable Vision or Sight Wards, which place invisible wards on the map that reveal enemy units (vision wards reveal stealthed units) for three and a half minutes. Additionally, certain champion spells, such as Karthus' Wall of Pain or Corki's Phosphorus Bomb will reveal portions of the map shrouded by fog of war.

    References: League of Legends - Fog of War

  • Grab

    Grab effects will pull the targeted unit in the direction of the unit instigating the Grab effect. Blitz Rocket Grab is an example of a grab.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Gold

    Coming Soon

  • Heal

    Heal effects cause a unit to regenerate hit points. Some heal effects regenerate this health immediately, while others (heal over times) regenerate the health continuously over a set duration. Some items also have effects which mitigate the amount that a heal ability benefits the units it affects, other items increase the amount of healing done by heal and abilities.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Healing Reduction

    Healing reduction reduces the amount of healing received from all healing effects. Healing Reduction effects do not stack in any way. This only applies to HEALs, not life steal NOR spell vamp.

    References: Patch 1.0.0.74

  • Health

    Health increases the maximum health of a champion. When a champion's health reaches 0, they are killed. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • HP Regen per 5

    HP Regen per 5, also known as health regeneration or health per 5 seconds. This statistic determines the amount of health that a champion regenerates over a five second period. Each champion starts with a different rate of base health regeneration. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Invisibility

    Invisible units can do not appear until they have attacked, or the duration of their invisibility effect expires. For some champions, using an ability that will cause them to become invisible is preceded by period called a "fade time", during which the champion appears partially transparent, but is still visible to enemies. During this fade time, any damage taken by the champion delays becoming invisible for a short period of time. No matter how many times a champion is hit, however, the fade time on invisibility cannot exceed five seconds.

    Invisibility detection: There are various ways for a champion to gain the ability to see invisibility. A champion with this ability will see invisible enemy units as partially translucent. When a revealed invisible unit leaves the revealed area that unit does not experience a fade time; the unit immediately turns invisible again. The following is a list of possible ways to detect invisible Champions:

    * Vision Wards: Vision Wards can be purchased at the item shop. When placed on the ground these stationary wards reveal an area of the map for three and a half minutes. Any invisible enemy units who move through their vision radius during this time will be revealed.
    * [item_text=Oracle's Elixir]: A consumable potion available at the item shop that grants invisibility detection to a champion until death. Any invisible enemies enter this champion's vision range while this potion is active will appear be revealed.
    * Champion Abilities: Some abilities, such as Corki's Phosphorus Bomb, Twisted Fate's Destiny, and Nidalee's Bushwhack / Pounce, can reveal invisible units for a short period of time.

    AKA: Stealth
    References: League of Legends - Invisibility

  • Invulnerability

    Invulnerability effects protect units from all incoming damage. They do not protect units from other effects.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Item (Stacking)

    Item stacking is dependent on the statistic, and there is no generic rule.. Most stats from items will stack additively. Some stats (dodge, percent penetration) as well as anything listed as a UNIQUE ability will not. For instance, the Infinity Edge item has the following stats:

    +80 DMG
    +20% Crit
    UNIQUE Passive: Critical hits now deal 250% damage instead of 200%.

    If you were to pick up two Infinity Edges, you would have the following stats:

    +160 DMG
    +40% Crit
    UNIQUE Passive: Critical hits now deal 250% damage instead of 200%.

    Note that both the damage and critical chance stack additively, but because the passive to the Infinity Edge is UNIQUE, you cannot be affected by that more than once. That means, even if you have 5 of them, you still only do deal 250% damage.

    References: League of Legends - Forum Post on Mechanics

  • Kill

    Coming Soon

  • Knockback

    Knockback effects will propel a unit in the opposite direction as the source of the knockback effect.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Life Steal

    Life Steal converts a percentage of the damage dealt by a champion's physical attack to health. Life steal is calculated from the actual damage done to an enemy, after armor reduction. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic. Most champions begin with 0% base life steal.

    Lifesteal does work with Sheen, Lich Bane and Trinity Force, which implies it works as an on-hit mechanic.

    Lifesteal does NOT get affected by healing debuff items or abilities, because it is not a HEAL, it is a lifesteal.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics, Test Lab Post

  • Magic Resist

    Magic Resist reduces the damage a champion receives from magical attacks. Magic resistance reduces the damage of incoming magical attacks by a percentage. This percentage is determined by the formula: Damage Reduction = Total Magic Resistance / (100 + Total Magic Resistance). For example, a champion with 150 points of magic resistance would receive 60% reduced damage from magical attacks.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Magic Penetration

    Magic Penetration offsets Magic Resistances in various ways

    Flat magic penetration is applied directly to your magical abilities. These abilities will deal damage to your target as though he has less magic resist than he really does, but will never bring an opponent below 0 magic resist. For example, if a target has 20 magic resist and you have 5 magic penetration, you would deal damage as though the target had 15 magic resist. If you had 50 magic penetration against the same target, you would deal damage as though he had 0 magic resist.

    Percent magic penetration applies its benefits after flat magic penetration. For example if you fight a target with 120 magic resist while you have 20 flat magic penetration and 40% magic penetration, you would deal damage to your target as though he had 60 magic resist.

    Resist reduction and resist penetration are applied in this order:
    1. Percent reduction (Bushwhack / Pounce)
    2. Flat reduction (Cursed Touch, Abyssal Scepter, etc)
    3. Flat penetration (Sorcerer's Shoes, Archaic Knowledge Mastery, Runes of Insight)
    4. Percent penetration (Void Staff)
    (note: not sure of the order of 1 and 2 since the patch notes only mention a change to the order in which penetration is applied, not reduction).

    Numbers 1 and 2 will visibly affect a target's armor/resist values in their stat display. While 3 and 4 apply further reduction in much the same way, players will only see a change in damage dealt; there will be no visible change in the target's armor/resist in the stats display. Also note that armor/resist reduction is able to lower an enemy's armor/resist values below zero, but penetration can only penetrate armor/resist up to zero and no further.

    Stacking Magic Percent Penetration will yield diminishing results as it stacks multiplicatively and not additively. Archaic Knowledge and Void Staff would grant 49% Penetration and not 55%.

    Magic reduction is generally an aura from items, so it applies to all the enemies in a range around you and benefits teammates.

    References: Heat n Serve's - Guide to Mathcrafting, League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Magic Reduction

    Magic Reduction varies from Magic Penetration, but since the two are inter-related, they are both covered under Magic Penetration.

  • Mana

    Mana increases the maximum mana points of a Champion. Most champion abilities cost mana to activate. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • Minions

    Minions are the little spawned guys that make their way up the lane. They include normal minions, caster minions, cannon minions and when an inhibitor is down, super minions. They differ from Creeps who live in the jungle.

    Under normal circumstances, a minion's behavior is extremely simple. Minions follow their attack route until they reach an enemy to engage. Every few seconds, they will scan the area around them for the highest priority target.

    When a minion receives a call for help from an ally, it will evaluate its current target in relation to the target designated by the call. It will switch its attack to the new target if and only if the new target is of a higher priority than their current target.

    Minions prioritize targets in the following order:

    1. An enemy champion designated by a call for help from an allied champion.
    2. An enemy minion designated by a call for help from an allied champion.
    3. An enemy minion designated by a call for help from an allied minion.
    4. An enemy turret designated by a call for help from an allied minion.
    5. An enemy champion designated by a call for help from an allied minion.
    6. The closest enemy minion.
    7. The closest enemy champion.

    Note: Single-target spells such as Annie's Disintegrate or Kassadin's Null Sphere will not generate a call for help.

    Because they are continuously reevaluating their target, minions will lose interest in an enemy champion if that champion breaks off an engagement with them, provided that there is any other target left for them to choose within range.

    Remember, however, that minions will only reevaluate their target every few seconds. This means that if your champion initiates an attack against an enemy champion, your champion will continue to be viewed as the most threatening target for a short time after you have broken off the attack. This is true even if one of your allied champions has joined the fight, since minions always prioritize their current target over a new target of equal priority.

    Minions health gets buffed for each inhibitor that is destroyed on the enemy team. Still finding out the exact math behind it, but it seemed like +60 per inhibitor.

    References: League of Legends - Minions and Turrets, Forum Post that includes Minion Information

  • Movespeed

    Movement Speed affects the rate at which a champion travels across a map. One movement speed point translates to one game distance unit traveled per second (as a frame of reference, Annie's basic attack has a range of 625 game distance units). Each Champion begins the game with a particular base move speed. That base move speed can be increased in several ways.

    Direct movement speed bonus: A champion can obtain one of the following direct movement speed bonuses by purchasing boots from the shop. These effects are unique, meaning that if a champion has more than one direct bonus to their movement speed, they will only receive the highest bonus.

    * Movement Speed 1 increases the movement speed of a champion by 50.
    * Movement Speed 2 increases the movement speed of a champion by 70.
    * Movement Speed 3 increases the movement speed of a champion by 90.
    * Movement Speed 5 increases the movement speed of a champion by 130.

    Percentage bonuses to movement speed: Increases the movement speed of a champion by adding a percentage of their static move speed. Any direct movement speed bonuses a champion obtains are applied before bonuses of this type have been calculated

    Diminishing returns on movement speed: Any movement speed bonuses that would cause a champion's movement speed to exceed 415 are reduced by 20%. Any movement speed bonuses that would cause a champion's movement speed to exceed 490 are reduced by 50%.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • MP Regen per 5

    MP Regen per 5, also known as mana regeneration or mana per 5 seconds. This statistic determines the amount of mana that a champion regenerates over a five second period. Each champion starts with a different rate of base mana regeneration. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics

  • PvP.net Client

    PvP.net Client is the application you use to launch into games. Due to the wealth of misinformation about the PvP.net client, matchmaking and ELO. I decided to add a PvP.net Client section. I will add to it as I find more information.

    * Someone being on your ignore list DOES NOT prevent them from being in a game with you. This is due to two different systems being used for matchmaking and chatting / ignoring.

    References: TBD

  • Pets

    Coming Soon

  • On Hit Effects

    On Hit effects happen when an auto attack is used, or an ability that procs on hit effects. Certain items proc effects "on-hit", some examples are [item_text=Malady].

    Also, "on-hit" effects are generally only from auto-attacks, but there are some abilities that also proc "on-hit" effects, like Parrrley. But, for example, Spear Shot does not proc "on-hit" effects.

    References: ...

  • Regenerate

    Regeneration is an effect that is similar to HP per 5, but at a much faster rate generally (often a %). Sometimes it is a % of total health (like Mundo's Sadism and Garen's Perseverance).

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Resurrection

    Resurrect is an effect which causes a dead Champion to come back to life either without or prior to the completion of a death timer.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Root

    Root simply locks a player in place, still allowing them to take any and all actions with the exception of movement actions which are suppressed (Yi's Alpha Strike, Trist's Rocket Jump, etc).

    AKA: Snare
    References: TBD

  • Silence

    Silence is an effect which prohibits units from using abilities or spells.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Skill Shot

    Skill shots are hand-targeted shots at a location on the map, not a specific enemy or building. They take "skill" to learn to land them. They can pass thru walls and other obstructions.

    References: TBD

  • Sleep

    Sleep is an ability coming soon, it is a stun that will be removed if any damage is applied to the target.

    References: TBD

  • Slow

    Slows simply lower the enemies movement speed.

    All slows stack with each other, but Rylai will not stack with itself.

    Item slows do not stack with each other (they are a special slow type). This includes Phage, Trinity Force, Frozen Mallet, and [item_text=Rylai's Scepter]. Warden's Mail and Randuin's Omen do stack with other item slows (but again not with themselves from the same person).

    Most slows will stack if two different people use them (for example double Exhaust) but item slows are an exception, they are limited to the biggest single item slow, from any player.

    Another bit of confusing data is that an item like Frozen Mallet does different amount of slowing on different champs, 30% on ranged champs, 40% of melee champs.

    (Thanks to Civil Enemy for below data)
    Lizard buff (lvl 18) and frozen mallet, you should have 55% slowing, i got:
    370->193=48% slow
    380->195=49% slow
    325->183=44% slow
    so, the slower they get, the less slowed they will become.

    Singed, and tried what happened if i used his mega adhesive (75 % slow) and frozen mallet (40% slow)
    that should be 85% slowing.
    that came out:
    463->145=69% slow
    380->138=64% slow
    325->134=59% slow

    finally, i tested with all three, and 25% + 40% + 75% slowing should be around 89% slowing
    i came up with:
    463->136=71% slow
    370->130=65% slow
    380->131=66% slow

    (Thanks to Fury for the below data)
    Slows start to suffer diminishing returns at 220. The DR cuts the slow by 50%. No harsher DR was found before the 130 point but it may exist if you manage to bring them even lower.

    I used exhaust as my primary slow for the following tests.
    A 350 movespeed target was brought to 215. A 38.5% slow. So diminishing returns kick in before 215.
    A 370 movespeed target was brought to 222. A full 40% slow. So diminishing returns kick in after 222.

    Reference: Heat n Serve Forum Post, Information on frozen mallet slow amounts

  • Snare

    AKA: Root

  • Spell Vamp

    Spell Vamp converts a percentage of the damage dealt by a champion's magical abilities to health. Spell Vamp is calculated from the actual damage done to an enemy, after magic resist. This statistic scales additively, meaning that each bonus point acquired directly affects the statistic. Spell vamp is only 1/3 as effective for area-of-effect or multi-target spells.

    Sunfire Capes do NOT proc spell vamp, Rammus' Defensive Ball Curl does, [item_text=Madred's Bloodrazor] does NOT, Hextech Gunblade does.

    Spell Vamp does NOT get affected by healing debuff items or abilities, because it is not a HEAL, it is spell vamp.

    References: League of Legends - Champion Statistics, Test Lab Post

  • Stealth

    AKA: Invisibility

  • Stun

    Stun is an effect which causes a unit to be unable to move or use any abilities or spells for a brief duration. It will also cancel many spells and abilities if they are in the process of being cast.

    References: League of Legends - Abilities and Effects

  • Toss

    Toss effects will pull the instigating unit in the direction of the unit targeted by the Toss effect.

    References: TBD

  • Towers

    A tower (turret) is a fixed defensive structure, and will be one of major things you have to defeat to win a match.

    A tower will never lose interest in your champion as a target. If your champion becomes the target of a turret, your only recourse is either to flee out of its range, or to destroy it. In the past, you could juggle aggro between champions based on who drew aggro last, this no longer works as towers *lock on* to a single champion and will remain on that champion until it is out of range.

    A turret prioritizes targets in the following order:

    1. An enemy champion designated by a call for help from an allied champion.
    2. An enemy minion designated by a call for help from an allied champion.
    3. The closest enemy pet (tibber, etc)
    4. The closest enemy minion.
    5. The closest enemy Champion.

    Note: Any time a champion takes damage near a friendly turret, it will immediately try to attack the aggressor unless otherwise occupied with an enemy champion.

    Tip: If you are going to pick a fight by one of your opponent's turrets, make sure your most durable champion scores the first hit. This will draw the turret's fire away from the more fragile members of your team.

    The other important thing to know about towers is that when they attack heroes they gradually increase their damage. Ex: We'll assume the tower deals 100 damage, increases at 10% per shot, and maxes at 155%. If a champion tower dives alone and takes all tower hits, it would look like this:

    85 damage (starts at 85% standard)
    95 damage (increased by 10%)
    105 damage (increased by 10%)
    115 damage (increased by 10%)
    125 damage (increased by 10%)
    135 damage (increased by 10%)
    145 damage (increased by 10%)
    155 damage (increased by 10%)
    155 damage (damage is maxed)

    When the tower switches targets between champions, the damage will decrease to 125% standard if it is above that. Using the previous example:

    85 damage (starts at 85% standard)
    95 damage (increased by 10%)
    105 damage (increased by 10%)
    115 damage (increased by 10%)
    125 damage (increased by 10%)
    135 damage (increased by 10%)
    145 damage (increased by 10%)

    *Tower switches to Champion B*

    125 damage (reduced to 125% standard)
    135 damage (increased by 10%)
    145 damage (increased by 10%)
    155 damage (damage is maxed)

    The only way that this damage increase will go away is if the tower hits a minion or doesn't perform an attack for 4 seconds.

    Another worthwhile fact to know is that towers have significantly more armor and magic resistance when no enemy minions are near, when an enemy minion comes into tower range, their armor and magic drops a large amount. Once the minions are killed, the tower will remain weak for about 5 seconds before the values return. Also, having a friendly champion near a tower gives it +5 MR / Armor.

    When you attack a tower, it will take whatever is higher, you attack damage, or 40% of your ability power and apply that to the tower per auto-attack. Towers do physical damage, it can be reduced by armor, but not dodged.

    It appears armor penetration has no effect on towers. You can not crit towers, nor does lifesteal or spellvamp effect towers. A limited set of abilities can be used on towers.

    Towers grow stronger in damage, magic resist and armor throughout the game (until they reach their cap), still working out the exact mechanics of when and how much they go up by... They also gain 250 health for every disconnected or missing champion from your team

    From Kirtanei.

    Quoted Text:

    Towers get bonuses as time passes. The stat gain isn't the same. First they gain stats based on a set

    I call 1), thereafter from a set I call 2); this cycle is repeated until the tower's stats has been capped.

    Tower #1 gains:
    1) +6 Damage, +1 Armor & Magic Resistance.
    2) +6 Damage, +2 Armor & Magic Resistance.
    Caps at 200 Damage (+48 damage). No further Armor or Magic Resistance is given after this point.

    Tower #2 gains:
    1) +6 Damage, +2 Armor, +1 Magic Resistance.
    2) +6 Damage, +1 Armor, +2 Magic Resistance.
    Caps at 263 damage (+66 damage). No further Armor or Magic Resistance is given after this point.

    Tower #3 gains:
    1) +6 Damage, +2 Armor, +1 Magic Resistance.
    2) +6 Damage, +1 Armor, +2 Magic Resistance.

    Wasn't long enough in the game to reach the cap. Speculating it's at +84 damage.

    If Tower #1 is capped at +48 damage, Tower #2 at +66 damage I guess that Tower #3 may be
    capped at +84 damage. This of course is only speculation.

    Also I forgot to mention:

    2nd Line towers start getting bonuses shortly before 1st Line towers finishes.

    3rd Line towers start getting bonuses once 2nd Line Towers finish their bonuses.


    References: League of Legends - Minions and Turrets, League of Legends - Forum Post on Mechanics, Forum Post that includes Tower Information, 40% AP or 100% AD on autoattacks to towers, Forum post on Minions, link

  • Taunt

    Taunt causes the character taunted to simply auto-attack the person who taunted them for the duration. Abilities like Puncturing Taunt. This can be used to focus turret damage onto a target.

    References: TBD

  • True Damage

    True Damage is a special type of damage applied by Olaf, Corki and Cho'gath. It can be mitigated by absorption shields, but not by damage reducing abilities like Alistar's Unbreakable Will.

    References: Test Lab Post

  • * More Resources

    These are resources I think everyone should check out... let me know in comments if you have any other great resources.

    * Initial Forum Post
    * Heat n Serve's Guide to Mathcrafting If you care about an in-depth knowledge of the math behind the mechanics, this is the post for you, equations and examples galore
    * League of Legends - Learning Section
    * Test Lab Post
    * Champion Movement Speeds and Attack Ranges
    * Crit Damage vs. Armor Penetration (by me, not validated for accuracy)
    * IP Boosts and You
    * Who has what CC List
    * Important Mechanics on Slow
    * Last Hit Analysis
    * The Pressure Game
    * It Pays for Itself!
    * Dated mechanics post
    * Physical or Magical Damage?
    * Amazing guide to items values per gold



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